高中英语知识点梳理:英语泛指与特指的转换与

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  泛指和特指是每年高考必考的一组概念,在英语中广泛使用。 泛指 是指普遍、不确定的人或事物,而 特指 则是指具体、特定的人或事物。在实践中,这两个概念是可以灵活运用且相互转换的。下面分几个方面谈谈:

  

  一、 泛指 与 特指 的多种表达

  

  说起 泛指 ,我们马上想起不定冠词(a/an),其实不带冠词的不可数名词和复数名词都可以表 泛指 ,有些表 不定 概念的限定词(another, some, a few, most, enough, hundreds of, plenty of等)也可以充当这个作用。例如:

  

  I want to buy a book/some books. Books are of great use. Air is all around us.

  

  I will stay there for a few days/another few days.

  

   特指 经常由定冠词(the)或表 特定 概念的限定词(物主代词,指示代词,名词所有格等)来充当。假如将 中国的第二大河流 说成 China s the second longest river 是不妥当的,因为China s和the在 特指 的概念上是重复的。 那个门破了的教室 既可以译成 the classroom whose door is broken 也可以说成 the classroom the door of which is broken ,因为 door 前应该有个表 特指 的限定词。同样, with one s help/ take one s place 可能在另一场合会变成 with the help of/ take the place of 。

  

  在表达 倍数 时,我们常常看到这样一个公式: 倍数+ the +名词(size/height/ length) + of 。如果把它改为 倍数+表特指的名词/代词 就可以更好理解的下面的句子了:

  

  ① The size of the newly broadened square is four times that of the previous one. (that=the size)

  

  ② I offer ten times the money that Antonia has borrowed. =I offer ten times what Antonia has borrowed. (what=the money that定语从句)

  

  ③ You can t imagine that rats eat 40 to 50 times their weight.(their weight=the weight of rats)

  

  二、 泛指 与 特指 的转化

  

   泛指 与 特指 在不同的语境中并非一成不变,它们是可以转换的。

  

  (一) 泛指 转化为 特指

  

  1.① I spent many happy hours with them.

  

  ② This picture reminds me of the many happy hours I spent with them.

  

  2.① I bought a few books in the bookstore.

  

  ② The few books I bought in the bookstore are written in English .

  

  3.① I don t feel like drinking water.

  

  ② I don t feel like drinking the water from this well.

  

  4.① Cotton played an important part in Industrial Revolution.

  

  ② The most important thing about cotton in history is the important part that it played in Industrial Revolution.

  

  5.① I have done a little to help you.

  

  ② I hope the little that I ve been able to do has been of some use to you.

  

  以上的②句中的划线部分都是由于有一个定语限定而转化为 特指 。

  

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